Histories and Education

February 3, 2014 at 10:14 pm (Education) (, , , , , , , , , )

Landmark-HerodotusIn my pursuit for knowledge, and for schooling my own child, I have been pretty diligent about reading as much history as I have the mental capacity to remember.  That means I read at least one non-fiction book a month (whether history or not) and I include one non-fiction book per quarter in the Half Price Books Humble Book Club line up.

This quarter we’re planning to discuss Herodotus’ Histories in March.  (We meet the first Monday of the Month at 7:30 pm.) This isn’t just a fascinating work to read for book club, it was also on my life long list of books to read before I die.  It’s a tome; but it’s important, I think.

Not only is it important, I have a pretty awesome copy (The Landmark Herodotus) that I find completely beautiful as well as an extra ratty paperback copy for scribbling in.

So as I make my way through this book, that could serve as a book press for other books if I ever needed it to, I will share with you the gathered notes of our club members:


(Notes provided by Glenn Ray)

Book 1 CLIO

Below are the important kings and many of their exploits from book 1 ‘CLIO’. There are 9 books in all.

The ‘¶’ below is used to represent chapter #’s in this book.

A vertical line ‘|’ on a row by itself means next person down is child of this king.

NOTE: Where there is not a ¶ starting the line, then these are mostly from Wikipedia.

Below are 3 lines of kings, not all ancestral succession:

  1. Lydia (modern day western Turkey) kings: Gyges, Ardys, Sadyattes, Alyattes, Croesus

  2. Mede/Persian kings: Deioces, …Cyaxares, AstyagesCyrus the Great, … Tomyris of Massagetae (not Mede or Persian) …

  3. Darius I


(¶8 Candaules was king of Sardis & Lydia before Gyges,

& his favorite spearmen was Gyges;

Candaules shows Gyges his wife (Nyssia) naked)

(¶11,12, 13 Gyges, at Nyssia’s command, kills Candaules, becomes king; but

that vengeance for the Heracleidai (descendants of Heracles (Hercules)) will come upon the descendants of Gyges in the fifth generation [that being Croesus below].)

(Gyges reigned from 716 BC to 678 BC (or from c. 680–644 BC).)

(¶14 led an army against Miletus)



(Ardys II or Ardysus II) 678-629 BC (or 644-c.625)

(¶15 became king of Lydia; and continues daddy’s fight against Miletus)



(629-617 BC (or c.625-c.600))

(¶16 became king of Lydia for 12 years; made war vs Cyaxares – king of Medes)

(¶18 and continues daddy’s fight against Miletus)



king of Lydia (619–560 BC)

(capital Sardis, & controlled all Asia Minor west of the River Halys, except Lycia.)

(fought against Cyaxares – king of Media, during the Battle of Halys, /wikipedia)

(¶18 and continues daddy’s fight against Miletus)

(¶25 reigned 75 years)


Croesus (pronounced ‘KREE-sus’)

(GLR: some info below is from: http://www.ancient.eu.com/croesus/)

King of Lydia 560-547 BC (palace of Croesus was at Sardis.)

(GLR: Croesus, you will see, is one mean grandpa)

(funded construction of the great Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. / http://www.ancient.eu.com/croesus/)

(¶30 asks Solon who is happiest).

(Solon was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet)

(¶53 Croesus is also famous for asking the Oracle at Delphi whether he should go to war against Persia. And… destroy a great empire)

(¶55 Croesus consulted the Oracle & was told …a mule of the Medes shall be monarch…)

(¶69 alliance with the Lacedemonians)

(¶73 marching into Cappadokia to fight Cyrus, who to avenge his brother-in-law Astyages (who was defeated by Cyrus)

(¶79 Croesus’ horses feared the camels of Cyrus and ran.)

(¶84 Cyrus’ man Hyroiades scaled the wall of the citadel at Sardis and Croesus is defeated)

(¶86-7 Croesus in the Pyre)

(¶91 Croesus learns the mule = Cyrus)

Deïokes (or Deioces)

(In the late 8th century BC)

(¶96 – was the first king of the Medes per Herodotus.

(¶97…his decisions proved to be according to the truth)



king of Media 665 – 633 BC)

(Phraortes started wars against Assyria, but was defeated

and killed by Ashurbanipal, the king of Neo-Assyria.)


Cyaxares [or Kyaxares in Gutenberg version]

king of Media 625–585 BC)

(¶73 Scythians serve Cyaxares human meat, and Scythians runaway to Alyattes at Sardis for protection)



(king of Media 585 BC-550 BC)

(ruled in alliance with his two brothers-in-law, Croesus king of Lydia

and Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, whose wife, Amytis, Astyages’ sister,

was the queen for whom Nebuchadnezzar was said to have built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon)

(¶108 dream abo vine from Mandane; ordered Harpagos to kill grandson [Cyrus])

(¶118, 119 Astyages serves Harpagos his own son)

(Bible xref: Daniel 13:65(1)(1)This is per the “Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition” of the Bible, note the KJV stops at chapter 12.)


¶107 Daughter – Mandane married Cambyses from Persia


Cyrus the Great,

king of Persia, 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC

(¶55, 56 & 91 Cyrus is the mule)

(Bible xref: 2 Chron 36:22-33; Ezra 1:1-8, 3:7; 4:3,5; 5:13-17, 6:3,14, Isaiah 44:28, 45:1,13; Daniel 1:21, 6:28, 10:1,

and 1 Esdras 2. [Note: Church councils rejected 1 and 2 Esdras as non-canonical])

(was the monarch under whom the Israelites Babylonian captivity ended / Wikipedia)

(was prompted by God to make a decree that the Temple in Jerusalem should be rebuilt / Wikipedia)

(¶79 Cyrus uses camels against Croesus’ horses (horses fear the camels and ran.)

(¶84 Cyrus’ man Hyroiades scaled the wall of the citadel at Sardis and Croesus is defeated)

(¶141 Cyrus spoke fable to the Ionians and Aiolians, piper played for the fishes in the sea)

(¶155-156 Cyrus takes on his mean grandpa Croesus [who multiple times tried killing Cyrus] as closest councilor)

(¶178-183 Cyrus plans  & does to conquer Assyria & Babylon; Describes city of Babylon)

(¶205 Cyrus attempts to conquer Massagetae & their queen Tomyris)

(¶209 Cyrus dreamed Dareios/Darius would attempt to over throw him)

(¶211, captures 1/3 of her army & son Spargapises sleeping)

(¶213 -214, After Tomyris’ son, commits suicide, she defeats & kills Cyrus & give thee thy fill of blood.)

(¶216, Massagetae custom: when a man becomes very old, he is slaughtered, flesh boiled and the family banquet upon it.)

Darius I 550–486 BC

the third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire

(Reigned 522 BC to 486 BC (36 years))

(Darius is mentioned in the Biblical books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Haggai, and Zechariah.)

(¶187 Darius attempts to rob Babylon Queen Nitocris’ grave)

(¶199. Now the most shameful of the customs of the Babylonians…)

More notes to come as we progress through our readingXenophon. And when I’m done with Herodotus, I plan to conquer Xenophon…

I’ll keep you posted.

In the meantime, I challenge everyone to pick up any ancient history book and learn something about the world they didn’t know before this year.  The most fascinating thing to me about it all is that, even though civilizations change and grow and change and grow… people essentially, are always – at their core – pretty much the same.  I love learning about the world today through the eyes of our past.

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